One, type and brief introduction
In the electric bicycle market, the most commonly used lead-acid free maintenance battery, there are fiberglass separator adsorption technology of AGM batteries, and the use of colloidal electrolyte technology of GEL type colloidal battery.
The principle of lead-acid battery is that the anode (PbO2) and the cathode (Pb) in the lead-acid battery are immersed in the electrolyte (dilute sulfuric acid), and the electric power of 2V will be produced between the two poles. The chemical change in the discharge is that dilute sulfuric acid reacts with the active substance on the negative and negative plates to produce a new compound, lead sulfate. The more sulfuric acid is thinner, the longer the discharge is released from the electrolyte by the discharge of sulphuric acid. The components consumed are proportional to the discharge amount. As long as the concentration of sulphuric acid in the electrolyte is measured, that is, the measurement of its specific gravity, the discharge or residual quantity of electricity can be found. The chemical changes in the charge discharge in the anode plate, lead sulfate produced on the cathode plate when charging is decomposed into sulfuric acid reduction, lead and lead oxide, so the concentration of the electrolyte in the battery increases gradually, the proportion of the electrolyte increased, and gradually return to the concentration of discharge, this change shows the activity the material in the battery power supply can be restored to re state, when the poles of the lead sulfate was restored to the original active material, which is equal to the end of charging, and a cathode plate produced hydrogen anode plate produces oxygen, charged to the last stage, almost all current used in the electrolysis of water and electrolyte will at this time should be reduced, to supplement the water.
The AGM battery is diluted with sulfuric acid and diluted sulfuric acid is absorbed in the superfine glass fiber separator and plate. There is hardly any liquid in the battery. At present, most of the electric bicycle batteries sold on the market are AGM batteries.
GEL type colloidal battery is not free electric liquid electrolyte gel, acid leakage probability than before a battery is much smaller than the quantity of dilute sulfuric acid; perfusion 10~15%, water loss and less, so the battery will not cause failure due to dehydration of colloid colloid; pour add clapboard strength protection plate, make up in case of acid shrinkage defect plate, the assembly pressure is not reduced obviously one of the reasons for extending the life of the battery; gel filled the gap between the baffle plate and the plate, reducing the internal resistance of the battery, charge acceptance ability to improve. Therefore, the over discharge, Shaan and low temperature charge and discharge performances of gel batteries are superior to those of AGM batteries, and the consistency of gel batteries is much better than that of AGM batteries. There are four kinds of colloids in mass production in China: gas phase glue, silica sol, sol, organosilicon polymer glue.
The working principle of lithium ion battery is: when the battery is charged, the lithium in cathode material is released and goes through the diaphragm into the negative pole graphite. When the battery discharges, the lithium ion is released from the negative graphite and goes back through the diaphragm to the cathode material. The lithium ions are constantly embed and removed from the positive and negative poles with charge discharge.
The lithium ion battery is a two battery, because it has high energy density, high current charge and discharge, no memory effect, low cost of raw materials, environmentally friendly advantages, so after the advent of sales increasing year by year, the future will surely become a winner in the two battery. Since the advent of the 90s of last century, lithium batteries from button products, mobile phones and DC digital products from electronic products have been applied to electric bicycles. But the cost of lithium ion batteries accounts for 1/3 to 1/2 of the cost of electric vehicles, far greater than the proportion of lead-acid batteries in the whole vehicle. Moreover, lithium batteries are vulnerable to safety because of the high energy and poor stability of the lithium batteries. With the development of technology, lithium ion batteries will become the development trend of high quality electric vehicles.
Two, the main points of the battery selection and purchase
AGM battery has the advantages of low cost, large discharge current advantages, but there is a temperature range is narrow, cell defect dehydration and thermal runaway; GEL battery has high cost, but it has stable performance, wide working temperature, anti overcharge over discharge and long life etc..
As the electric bicycle battery is in most cases large current, deep circulation discharge, therefore, the electric bicycle battery is more suitable for the selection of colloid battery. The colloidal battery has strong ability to withstand over discharge and strong electrohydraulic storage capacity. It avoids the influence of over discharge on battery and causes the phenomenon of thermal runaway due to battery loss.
Charging characteristics of lead-acid batteries of various brands are basically the same, but because the battery material formulation, the manufacturers of electrolyte concentration and content were different, the charging voltage also have some differences, therefore, strictly speaking, should according to the specific requirements of each battery manufacturers to determined the charging voltage of the battery, otherwise easy to use the cell caused by the improper. Timken bearings, NSK bearings SKF bearings "
The output power of the electric bicycle motor matches the rated power of the battery. Therefore, if we want to extend the service life of the battery, the power of the electric bicycle must be less than the rated power of the battery, so that the battery will not work under full load or overload condition for a long time.
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When the battery is used in series, if the internal resistance of the battery is not consistent, the battery terminal voltage will not be consistent during charging and discharging, which will eventually lead to premature failure of the whole battery. Therefore, on the electric bicycle, the balance of the battery group has a considerable influence on the life of the battery. For consumers, how to use it reasonably will also have a certain impact on the balance of the battery, thus affecting the life of the battery. According to the research and practical use of batteries for many years, it is suggested that consumers use the following methods to use the battery reasonably.
(1) electric bicycle riding speed: 20-25km/h.
(2) riding distance: 10-30km/ days, the discharge depth is less than or equal to 70% (a deep discharge every 2 months).
(3) charging frequency: once a day.
(4) load: a single ride (one with a child under 10 years of age).
According to the above method, the better quality electric bicycles can be used for 3-4 years, even 5 years, and the battery can be used for about 1 and a half years. The more shallow the discharge depth of the battery, the longer the cycle life of the battery, the longer the battery life cycle. Therefore, consumers generally believe that one charge for one cycle is wrong, to make their own use of the extended battery life, it must keep the battery in the fully charged state, the state power loss of the long time, the negative plate battery is easy to cause salinization, battery capacity loss, affect battery service life.
Four, battery maintenance
The battery life and performance depend to some extent on the consumption and maintenance of the battery after the battery manufacturer is out of the factory.
(1) the matching of the charger and the battery.
Electric vehicle battery charging is bad, not bad, we can see the importance and battery chargers, and there are two cases: one is the parameters provided by the manufacturer and the battery charger itself does not match, the two is the quality of the components of the charger itself, just began to use, is matched with consumer charge and the discharge cycle, the charger itself due to temperature rise, components aging, resulting in drift charging voltage and switching current, the battery is damaged.
It is suggested that consumers and electric vehicle manufacturers should buy battery chargers that do not match up with battery manufacturers. They will not lose batteries because they are cheap.
(2) regular and timely supplement of electricity.
Consumers usually have a misunderstanding on the instructions of the nominal service life cycle as an electric charge, the battery life is reduced at a time, so every time the battery power consumption voltage 31.5V protection to the controller to add power, not knowing that not only can protect the battery and shorten the battery life. So it reminds the consumers that, in the case of possible, the battery should be supplemented in time.
(3) no indicator lights are strictly prohibited to continue riding under the condition of undervoltage. Some consumers ride on the half way and the indicator light shows the condition of under voltage. After taking a rest and riding a section, it will cause great harm to the battery. Severe discharge will make the battery saltate or lead lead dendrite, which will make the battery short circuited and affect the life span.
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(5) riding in the rainy day, we should try to avoid the switch and joint wetting so as to prevent leakage.
A lot of knowledge about batteries is positive for the maintenance and maintenance of lead-acid batteries for electric booster cars. By improving technology, especially the improvement of colloid technology, the cost performance of lead-acid batteries has great advantages compared with other batteries.